Saturday, December 31, 2016

Some Ancestors from Hardanger Fjord



Chart #48 connects some older ancestry from Peter Jonsson Sandvin (Chart #29) and Torgeir Torsteinsson Aga Aske (Chart #26a) to the descendants of Tore Gardson discussed in the previous blog (Chart #47). Yet the few individuals on this chart have some quite interesting stories of their own.

Peter Jonsson Sandvin and his wife, Ingebjørg Gudtormsdatter Norheim, were only a few generations descended from Norwegian Royalty and Nobility. Peter's property at Sandvin was quite large with many other farms in the Hardanger area of Hordaland. He had no sons, only three daughters.  Old documents give us some idea of his life.  In 1304 he issued a letter to take a journey through the woods to summer pasture with the cattle in the mountains. In 1306 he represented his wife at Norheim (Kvam, Hordaland) when the partition of her father's inheritance took place.  In 1314 he was granted a place at Bø, when the sons of a deceased wealthy squire transferred property to their wives and daughters.  Peter is mentioned several times in connection to boundary disputes with two neighbors where three boathouses stood.  In 1329 he confirms that the priest in Øystese had received the stipulated payment for his official capacity. In 1331 there was an agreement about how his three daughters would receive the inheritance after him and their descendants would distribute the property in case one died without descendants. This indicates that Peter died about 1330.

Peter's eldest daughter, Margreta, married Erling Torleiksson, who also had quite some property at Berge in Strandebarm, not far from Kvam.

The farm of Aga is also in Hardanger. It is on the west side of Sørfjorden, which is a smaller fjord coming off the Hardangerfjord. Today the farm is called Agatunet, which is now an open air museum with 30 homes! 
Aga was in ancient times a chiefdom, and several ancient burial mounds indicate very early settlement. The farm was one of the largest in Hardanger through the Middle Ages and has had close association with several vestlandske adelsætter (important west land family clans). In the late 1200s, all of the Aga farm belonged to a great man (Sigurd Brynjulfsson på Aga). Later it was divided between descendants. In 1940 there were nine smaller farmsteads divided from the original farm. Overall it included 80-90 buildings. ...
The oldest remaining building is Lagmannstova from about 1250, a unique log house on high basement walls. It is built of timber from Varaldsøy (Kvinnherad) by the judge (lagmann), knight (ridder) and State Council member (riksråd) Sigurd Brynjolfsson - one of the advisers to King Eirik Magnusson (see Chart #48). This is the oldest medieval building in the country where the original still stands. [no.wikipedia.org: Agatunet, translation by Google and Ira Lund]
The museum at Agatunet is also remarkable as it is one of the very few cluster farms remaining in Norway. The cluster farmstead was the Norwegian version of the middle European village. All the houses were gathered in a cluster, while the fertile soil and the surrounding forest was divided into small plots. Each farmer had ownership of multiple parcels, and they lay scattered around the area. A sophisticated system ensured an equitable distribution of good and bad plots.

While we are discussing Hardanger I must mention a couple of famous crafts that come from this area of Norway. 
  • "Hardanger embroidery or 'Hardangersøm' is a form of embroidery traditionally worked with white thread on white even-weave cloth, using counted thread and drawn thread work techniques. It is sometimes called whitework embroidery." [wikipedia: Hardanger embroidery]  This style of embroidery did not originate in Hardanger, came to be called Hardanger embroidery due to the enormous use of it in this area for about 200 years (from 1650-1850) to decorate traditional Norwegian bunads (national costumes) as well as other decorative cloth items around the home. My mother (from Stavanger, Norway) was quite familiar with this and did some Hardagner embroidery herself as well as other kinds of needlework.
  • The Hardanger Fiddle has come to symbolize the Norwegian national musical instrument. It has 8 (or sometimes 9) strings rather than the usual 4 on other violins. It was historically used to play the old folk tunes of Norway. Every Hardanger fiddle I have ever seen has been beautifully embellished with intricate designs, often of the acanthus plant which was also used for many Norwegian carvings.


Here are links to some of the key people in my online genealogy database:

























Here are some links to help you learn more:

Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

Wednesday, December 28, 2016

Book Review: Lagmannsætta

My favorite bygdebok (that I own) is called Lagmannsætta: Gard Toreson Ætta Frå Sør-Talgje i Rogaland by Sigleif Engen, 1984, translated as Family of a Civil Judge: Gard Toreson's family (or clan) from Sør-Talgje in Rogland County Norway. This book is only 101 pages, an extract from Sigleif Engen's larger multi-volume Forsandboka. However, it contains a lot of interesting detail about an important family in my ancestry (and likely the ancestry of most anyone from Rogland County). Of course, it would help if you knew Norwegian, which I don't. I just know enough to get an idea of what the book is about. It has a number of genealogy diagrams as well as quite a few nice photographs.

Gard Toreson is mentioned as a judge in Mosterøy, an island in the fjord north of Stavanger. He was married to Ramborg Knutsdatter Lejon, the daughter of the Swedish knight Knut IX Algotson Lejon Grip and Marta Ulfsdatter Lejon-Ulvåsa. Marta was a daughter of Ulf Gudmarson Lejon Ulvåsa and St. Birgitta "den Hellige" Birgersdatter Lejon, who we discussed in the prior blog. The Lagmannsætta book discusses all these people and more as they are probably the most powerful family in Rogaland for several centuries and are the ancestors of many in and from that area of Norway today.

The Lagmannsætta book has a chapter on the Talgje church built of stone, which is a bit unusual in Norway as Norway is famous for their stave churches built of wood. The Talgje Church, which is still standing, was built between 1120-1150, soon after the Stavanger Cathedral was built. This was a hundred years before Baron Gaute Erlingson had his center of power there during the 13th century. (See Erling Skjalgsson, King of Rogaland, Chart #26a.) The church has a set of stones with runic inscriptions on the south wall. The stones are probably not in their original location which make the text difficult to read: " '... By his death ... the building of this church ... to stay with (houses and expensive) ... to honor, and gave (it) six ...' This is interpreted to mean that a person has provided funding for the construction work. Over this text is another, perhaps by one of the first priests of Talgje, 'These runes wrote Eindride Jonsson, and pray for me.' " [no.wikipedia.org: Talgje kirke]

There are lots of interesting items discussed which I can only make out a little due to my lack of Norwegian. But there is a map of the old farm at Gara as well as maps for the islands of Idse (Isse) and Idsal (Issal). There are discussions of old letters from 1408 and 1409. There are photos of old gravestones from Stavanger cathedral, Fjære Church (in Aust-Agder), Uppsala Sweden, the gravestone of Ulf Gudmarson, the husband of St. Birgitta - and on and on. Just fascinating photos throughout - pictures of the adelsvåpen (signet seals) for the Benkestokk and Talgje families, old photos of the Jelling Stones in Denmark that I have discussed in earlier blogs. There are lengthy discussions of the ancestry and descendants of Gard Toreson and Ramborg Knudsdatter - almost all of which are in my direct ancestral lines. I just wished I had a complete English translation of the book.

If you are interesting is seeing this book, you can try worldcat.org which shows only 2 libraries that have this book: Family History Library in Salt Lake City and Rolvaag Memorial Library at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota. However, since this is taken from Sigleif Engen's larger bygdebok called Forsandboka you can find a copy at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, University of Wisconsin in Madison, University of North Dakota and the Library of Congress, as well as the first two mentioned libraries. I purchased my copy of the book from www.antikvariat.net several years ago. A quick check today (Dec 2016) and I see that there is actually a copy there for sell now! However, since the book is out of print it may be uncertain that they will always have a copy for sale.

A sample page from Lagmannsætta discussing the ancestry of Ramborg Knudsdatter with an old photo of Jelling, Denmark, the site of the 10th century stones raised by King Gorm the Old and his son Harald Bluetooth.

A map of the area around Stavanger, Norway. My mother was born and raised in Stavanger, and her ancestry comes from all over the area shown in the map above.


Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

If you would like to have new blog posts emailed to you as they are posted, email me a note with your email address and I will add you iralund@cft-win.com

Tuesday, December 27, 2016

Saint Birgitta of Sweden

In the fjord, north of Stavanger are lots of islands – some large, some small – but the one we are interested in is a smaller one called Sør-Talgje where at least two lines of noble ancestry trail their way down to my grandmother, Josephine Johannesen Knudsen.

St. Birgitta, the patron saint of all Sweden, was born about 1303 at Finnstad, Uppland, Sweden. She was the daughter of lagmann (lawman) Birger Person or Peterson (descended from Swedish Earls) and Ingeborg Bentgsdatter (descended from the Swedish Royal House).

Birgitta was married at the age of 13 or 14 to Ulf Gudmarson (a knight and lagmann (judge) of Nærke, Sweden). Together they had 8 children according to some sources (but others suggest there may have been as many as 11 children) before Ulf passed away at the age of 46. Shortly after Ulf’s death in 1344, Birgitta received a “vision of calling”. She renounced her worldly possessions and took up residence near a monastery in Östergötland, where she began to receive many revelations. In 1349 she received a vision to go to Rome, where she spent the remainder of her life. She had also traveled to the Middle East, where she received a number of visions pertaining to the life of Christ. In all, she received about 700 visions, recorded in various lengths on a number of subjects, many of which were extremely influential long after her death. She was canonized (made a Saint) in 1391 and her relics (bones) were transported to Vadstena, the home of the Brigettine Order (the Order of the Most Holy Savior) on the shores of Lake Vattern, Östergötland, Sweden. She had chastened and counseled kings and Popes Clement VI, Urban VI, and Gregory XI, urging them to return to Rome from Avignon. She encouraged all who would listen to meditate on the Passion, and of Jesus Crucified.

Perhaps the most famous of Birgitta’s children was St. Katarina, who became the first abbess at Vadstena. However, I am descended from Marta, who was married three times. It was with her second husband, Knut IX Algotsen that Marta went to Norway.  Knut was a brother of the well known Swedish duke, Bengt Algotson. Knut and Marta went to Norway in 1356, where they stayed 17 to 19 years. He returned to Sweden in 1375, four years after his wife, Marta died.  He was a Swedish (and Norwegian) knight, who also had noble and royal blood.

Knut and Marta had a daughter, Ramborg, who married Gard Toresson of the Garå farm on Talgje island. Gard, also a nobleman, is mentioned as judge (lagmann) in Mosterøy (a nearby Island) in 1453, when he was 50 years old, a suitable age for a judge.

In 1409 after Katarina Knutsdatter was dead we learn that Gard Toresson of Tolga was the guardian for Katarina's heirs.  From what later happened we can conclude that Rambjørg inherited from her sister, and that the inheritance then went to the children she and Gard Toresson had, Tore, Gunnar and Katarina. Tore, born abt 1400 had knight's status and was married to Ragnhild Eivindsdatter Rømer. Gunnar is mentioned at Idse, but his descendants later went to Gøysa in Forsand. Katarina was married to Torgeir Ånundsson and it is possible that they lived at Gard. There were many descendants of this family at Gard. It could well be called the Gard-Toresson-family or the Berge-family from the Under-Berge farm in Forsand.

I currently show two ancestral lines from Gard and Ramborg: Tore II and Gunnar as shown on Chart #47. As can be seen on this chart their descendants intermarried many years later and it could be said that I am descended from at least 7 lines of this family. Gunnar’s descendants were at Idse (Isse) another nearby island for a few generations, then seemed to move to Gøysa in Forsand to the southeast.

Torstein I Tørreson Øvre-Eiane Nerabø (in Forsand) was married to a daughter of Tarald Ådnøy. She had been previously married to a man named Sigmund, who must have been the first man at Nerabø. He was a murderer (drapsmannen), and probably executed for it. He had killed Jon Høllesli - a neighbor. Despite Sigmund’s crime, in standard Norwegian fashion of naming the next son after a deceased husband, one of the sons of Torstein and NN Taraldsdatter was named after Sigmund.

Gard and Ramborg’s other line of descent through Tore II, find their way to Under-Berge (with many descendants of Gard II mentioned in Sigleif Engen’s Forsandboka). Halvard’s line goes to Eiane farm in Forsand and Bjørheim.

While we are talking about Forsand, it ought to be mentioned what a beautiful fjord the Lyse Fjord is. It has some of the most picturesque scenery in all of Norway. Part way up the fjord is a famous huge rock that hangs over the fjord called Preachers Pulpit (Preikestolen). See the photo nearby to get an idea of what this area looks like. This fjord is quite narrow with rather steep mountains and cliffs on either side, which has made it difficult to find locations for farming. But the few that there are from Forsand all the way to Lysebotn are locations where some of my ancestors once lived. At the far eastern end of the fjord is another famous cliff and rock called Kjerag. This area is a high tourist area, especially for the adventuresome who love the hikes and scenery.









Here are links to some of the key people in my online genealogy database:

Here are some links to help you learn more:

Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

If you would like to have new blog posts emailed to you as they are posted, email me a note with your email address and I will add you iralund@cft-win.com

Monday, December 26, 2016

Vest-Agder Bygdebøker

Since I couldn't find a good current list on the internet, I am giving my own list for Vest-Agder County, Norway that I had put together over the years. To locate a library that has a copy of one of these books go to worldcat.org and enter the title or author name. You can either travel to that library or request via inter-library loan.

  1. Konsmoboka, by Tore Bergstøl, 1964-66
  2. Grindheim. Gards- og Ættesoge, by Magnus Breilid, 1966
  3. Listaboka, by Kåre Rudjord, 1980-87
  4. Lista : en bygdebok ; utgit med bidrag fra Lista herredstyre og Vanse sparebank, by Abraham Berge, 1926
  5. Spind. En bygdebok, by Jakob Birkenes, 1950 / 66
  6. Herad : bygda mellom fjorder og fjell, by Kåre Rudjord and Arnfinn Høyland, 1977
  7. Bygdebok for Nes herred Vest-Agder, by Kaare S. Berg, Volume 3 by Johannes Seland, 1988
  8. Bygdebok for Gyland, by Lars Fr. Nuland, 1960
  9. Bygdebok for Åna-Sira og Berrefjord, by Jan Helge Trelsgård og Tordis Midtbø, 1995
  10. Bakke bygdebok : gards- og slektshistorie, by Lars Ramsli, 2002
  11. Hægebostad : ei bygdebok : gards- og ættesoge, by Ånen Lauen, 1975
  12. Flekkerøya i eldre og nyere tid. Naturforhold, historie, samt slektsregistyre med personalhistorie, by Rudolf Martin Rudolfsen, 1947 / 1991
  13. Oddernes bygdebok, by Kåre Rudjord, 1968-74
  14. Randesund bygdebok, by Stein Tveite, 1957-85
  15. Tveits historie, by Johan Tveite, 1973
  16. Kvinesdal : ei bygdebok, by Ånen Årli, 1964-1972
  17. Feda : gards- og slektshistorie, by Ånen Årli, 1980
  18. Gards- og ættesoge Fjotland, by Johan Jerstad and Tor Veggeland, 1979
  19. Fjotland. Sogebok, by Johan Jerstad, 
  20. Fjotland. Lesebok, by Johan Jerstad, 1964
  21. Kultursoge frå Fjotland (general), by Tor Veggeland, 1983
  22. Kvenåsen krets i Fjotland : gårds- og slektshistorie omfattende gårdene Seland, Lindeland, Lindhommen, Eigeland og Solli., by Per Seland, 1981
  23. Fjordfolk. Fedas historie fra de eldste tider og fram til 1963, by Margit Løyland, 1999
  24. Vigmostadboka, by Tore Bergstøl, 1957-60
  25. Spangereid. Folk i bygda gjennom tidene (1600 - 1900), by Olav Njerve, 
  26. Sør-Audnedal bygdebok, by Nils P. Vigeland et al., 1970
  27. Sør-Audnedal; bygdebok. Redaksjon Nils P. Vigeland., by , 
  28. Lyngdal (vol 1- 3 Lyngdal), by Oddleif Lian and Ådne Fardal Klev, 
  29. Kvås : gard og folk., by Volume 4, 
  30. Austad : gard og folk , by Volumes 5 & 6, 
  31. Spangereid : vest for Lenesfjorden : gard og folk , by Volume 7, 
  32. Lyngdal. Fra istid til nåtid (gen history), by Sigurd Eikeland, 1981
  33. Holum : gardshistorie, by Bjørn Slettan, 
  34. Halse og Harkmark , by Dag Hunstad, 
  35. Bjelland.  Gards- og ættesoge, by Magnus Breilid, 1965
  36. Laudal, by Tomas Birkeland and Ole Kr. Fidje, 1968
  37. Øyslebø: Gard og Ætt, by Paal Sveinall, 1976
  38. Sirdal : gard og ætt, by Per Seland, 1980-2001
  39. Finsland, by Kristen Lauvsland, 1959 / 1974
  40. Greipstad : gård og slekt, by Marit Ljøstad Mørck, 1992
  41. Greipstad : nærings- og kulturlivet (gen history), by Tomas Birkeland, 1980
  42. Søgneboka : gårds- og slektshistorie for Søgne, by Kjell J. Bråstad, 1987-89
  43. Hægelands-boka (vol 1 has genealogy), by Jon Åsen, 1951-67
  44. Øvrebø-boka, by Jon Åsen, 1951-67
  45. Vennesla, by Stein Tveite, 1956 - 1986
  46. Åseral: gard og ætt, by Tarjei Liestol, 1976
  47. Birkenes, by Johan Tveite, 1969
  48. Stray-slekter fra fortid til nuti, by Haakon siring, 
  49. Bygdebok for Hidra herred, by Jan Helge Trelsgard, New 2010-16. www.hittero.no/products/bygdebok


Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

If you would like to have new blog posts emailed to you as they are posted, email me a note with your email address and I will add you iralund@cft-win.com


Rogaland Bygdebøker

Since I couldn't find a good current list on the internet, I am giving my own list for Rogaland County, Norway that I had put together over the years. To locate a library that has a copy of one of these books go to worldcat.org and enter the title or author name. You can either travel to that library or request via inter-library loan.
  1. Bjerkreimboka, by Lisabet Risa, 1997-2000
  2. Bokn : gard og ætt, by Birger Lindanger, 2001
  3. Jubileums- og bygdebok for Eigersund herad, by Aamund Salveson, 1937
  4. New Bygdebøker for Eigersund in progress. See: egersundsboka.no/Dokumentasjon.html
  5. Hetland skipreide i 450 a°r., by Petrus Valand and Olav Heskestad, 1971
  6. Finnøy : gard og ætt, by Halvard Bjørkvik, 1993-98
  7. Sjernarøy bygdebok., by Johannes Hidle and Jacob Sverre Løland, 1972
  8. Forsandboka. Gards- og ættesoge, by Sigleif Engen, 1981-1989
  9. Gjesdal bygdebok, by 1. Alsvik, Jan 2. Nordås, Hallvard , 1989
  10. Gards- og ættesoga for Gjestal (Vol 1 Jærens), by Søren Arneson, 1939 (1965, 1988)
  11. Gjesdal - indre del. Gards- og ættesoga, by 1. Gudtorm Mikkelson 2,3. Jørg Eirik Waula , 1994-2001
  12. Gard og folk i Skåre, by Arne Langhelle, 1999
  13. Hjelmeland Bygdesoge, by Trygve Brandal, 1994-1997
  14. Hjelmeland gardar og folk, by Trygve Brandal, 1989
  15. Hjelmeland skipreid, herad og kyrkjesogn. Gard og ætt, by Tor Skiftun, 1938
  16. Årdal, by Sigurd Eikeland, 1969-71
  17. Gards og ættesoga for Haa, by Torgeir Edland, 1971
  18. Hå. Nærbø - Varhaug, 1837 - 1937, og ymse tilfang til ei bygdebok for Hå prestegjeld, by T. Obrestad and Lars M. Reiestad, 1938
  19. Hå. Nærbø - Varhaug, 1837 - 1937, og ymse tilfang til ei bygdebok for Hå prestegjeld, by Erling Brunes, 1939
  20. Stord bygdebok, by Olav Høyland, 1966-73
  21. Bygdebok for Karmøy, by various, 
  22. Klepp gards- og ættesoga gjennom 400 år, 1519-1900 (Vol 3 Jæren ), by Erling Brunes, 1963-64
  23. Klepp 1900 - 1960, by Erling Brunes, 1964
  24. Klepp (general history), by Birger Lindanger, 1987-90
  25. Lunds historie, by Mehus, 1961
  26. Randaberg gard og aett, by Birger Lindanger, 1983-1996.
  27. Rennesøy: gard og ætt, by Birger Lindanger and Jørg Eirik Waula, 1993
  28. Rennesøy : gards- og ættesoge, by Vilhelm Sunnanå and Håvard Vetrhus, 1974
  29. Rennesøy prestegjeld. Rennesøy, Mosterøy, Kvitsøy, 1837-1937, by gen history, 1938
  30. Mosterøy, Bru, Sokn, og V. Åmøy. Gards- og ættesoge, by Olav Edland and Olav Nesheim, 1985
  31. Høle gjennom hundreåra, by Jon Bergsåker, 1964
  32. Høyland gards- og ættesoge gjennom 400 år, 1500-1900. (Vol 2 Jæren), by Ola Aurenes, 1952
  33. Våre røtter - I Lauvåsvågen, Lauvås, Eltervåg - et lokal- og slektshistorisk verk fra nordre del av Riska., by Georg Vaagen, 1983
  34. Riska : gardar og tettstad, by Eivind Smith, 1993
  35. Soga om Sauda, by Arnvid Lillehammer, 1973-74, 2002
  36. Soga om Sola og Madla, by Svein Ivar Langhelle (Bjørn Myhre, Birger Lindanger, and Hjalmar Tjelta), 1980-1983.
  37. Gard og ætt i Sola., by Sigurd Refheim, 1974
  38. Gard og ætt i Madla frå ikring 1600 til først på 1900-talet., by Sigurd Refheim, 1981
  39. Skudenes og Skudeneshavn : gamle glimt, by Marit Karin Alsvik;  Jan Alsvik, 2002
  40. Sviland : gamle glimt, by Marit Karin Alsvik;  Jan Alsvik, 2000
  41. Akra og Vea : gamle glimt, by Marit Karin Alsvik;  Jan Alsvik, 2002
  42. Torvastad : gamle glimt, by Marit Karin Alsvik;  Jan Alsvik, 2000
  43. Kopervik og Stangeland : gamle glimt, by Marit Karin Alsvik;  Jan Alsvik, 2002
  44. Folk i Strand : ei gards- og ættesoge, by Jan Alsvik, 1995
  45. Strand bygdebok, by Jan Alsvik, 1991
  46. Soga um(om) Strand, by Holger Barkved, 1939
  47. Bygdesoga for Sand i Ryfylke, by Åmund Salveson, 1927
  48. Gamle Suldal. Gards- og ættesoge, by Hallvard M. Hoftun, 1972
  49. Erfjord bygdebok: frå ætte- og kultursoga i Erfjord, by Magnus Våge, 1959
  50. Sand : gardar og folk, by Ernst Berge Drange, 1997-2000
  51. Erfjord , by Ernst Berge Drange , 2003
  52. Tysnes : gards- og ættesoge, by Ernst Berge Drange, 1986
  53. Jelsa I. Gards- og ættesoge, by Ola Foldøy, 1967
  54. Time Gards- og ættesoge, by Ola Aurenes and Roald Undheim, 1973
  55. Time Gards- og ættesoge, by Birger Lindanger, 2003, 2006
  56. Tysvær. Gard og ætt, by Nils Dybdal-Holthe and Nils Olav Østrem, 1990
  57. Skjold. Gard og ætt, by Nils Olav Østrem, 1999
  58. Utsira Gard og Slekt, by Jostein Austrheim, 1995
  59. Utsira fram til år 2000 : historien om et øysamfunn, by Roar Svendsen and Bjørn Arild Hansen Ersland, 2000
  60. Soga om Vats. Gard og ætt i gamle Vats Herad., by Nils Dybdal-Holthe, 1984
  61. Ølen., by various, 1986-2001
  62. Stavanger Borgarbog, by , 
  63. Gards og Ættesoga for Nærbø, by Edland, Torgeir, 1971
  64. Høle bygdebok, by Sigleif Engen, 


Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

If you would like to have new blog posts emailed to you as they are posted, email me a note with your email address and I will add you iralund@cft-win.com


Norwegian Bygdebøker

A Bygdebok (plural: Bygdebøker) is a local history and genealogy book typically created by a local Norwegian or community group. Almost every community in Norway has a bygdebok. These were typically created during the 20th century, although new ones are being added continually for areas that have not yet been previously covered. The authors often research every available source; church registers for christenings, marriages, deaths; local tax records or government sources and then compile a history and genealogy for everyone that has resided within that area. These are very useful books for genealogists but I have not seen such books written in other countries, such as Denmark, which would be useful for my paternal ancestry.

Every farm in Norway has had a name for hundreds of years and these farms (gard or gård) are often the chapters or topics of the genealogically important volumes or sections, often called "Gard og Folk" or "Gård og Ætta". Normally these farm chapters begin with the earliest known owners (farmers or bonde) of that farm and begin tracing them down to the present, showing every owner of that farm including their children, who their children married with birth and/or christening dates, marriage dates, death dates - everything that is known about each family. If the farm was in the same family for many generations one can often trace several generations of that family right within the bygdebok. For some families there may even be stories and important legal documents.


However, all of these bygdebok are in Norwegian, so one would need to become familiar with a typical layout and a few Norwegian terms and abbreviations. To give you an idea, I have included a photo of a page from a book I own from Spangereid which is in Vest-Agder (southernmost county in Norway). Notice the key words "Gard og folk" (Farm and people) at the bottom of the book cover. On page 390-391 are some of my ancestors which I have marked in red. See the entry for Nils Jakobsen Kilsnes, who is my grandfather's maternal great-grandfather. His grandmother was Gulina Nilsdatter Kiddelsnes and you can see Gulina listed as the 7th child down. Also if you look up from Nils' entry you can see him as the son in the previous family - which started on the previous page. So once you begin to memorize a few key words and abbreviations you can construct the family: f. means født (born), d. means døde (died), g.m. means gift med (married with), Dødtfødt sønn means "deadborn son" or rather stillborn son. Also notice that Gulina marries Hans Nilsen and the words "se senere" (see later) which means the next entry shows that Gulina and her husband are the next owners of the farm (which is called Kilsnes or Kittlesnes).

But there is even more information here in the short paragraph above the list of children. Use google translate to help out (translate.google.com). "Nils var bonde og fisker i 1801" translated as "Nils was a farmer and fisherman in 1801." Cool! 

So how does one get access to these books. If you want to purchase one, they can be difficult to locate for sale often from Norway and usually quite expensive. Some of the newer ones must be purchased directly from the community organization. For example, I am interested in my ancestry from  Hidra, Vest-Agder which I could never locate a bygdebok for. One of my contacts in Norway recently pointed out to me that a new book has been written and is now available from the Hitterø community (www.hittero.no/products/bygdebok) priced at 500 Norwegian Krone (abt $58 USD + shipping). The price is rather reasonable as I often find older books selling for around $100 USD or more + shipping (which isn't cheap either).


However, there are a number of libraries in the US that have many copies of various bygdebok. Some I have visited that I know have a good collection: St. Olafs College in Northfield Minnesota, University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, University of North Dakota in Grand Forks, and the Library of Congress in DC. But aside from traveling to one of these locations you might try inter-library loans from your local library. Basically you request a specific book from your local library and they request another library to loan the book to them temporarily. I have successfully obtained copies of some books this way, although some libraries may not loan their books. Even when you visit some of the libraries these books may be held in the reference section, meaning you cannot check them out but must view them in the library. So copying or taking a photo of the appropriate pages may be needed - or bringing your laptop with your genealogy software installed could be useful.

But how do you know which library has the book you are interested? There is a cool site www.worldcat.org that allows you to locate any book and find out which libraries have a copy of that book. I use the worldcat website all the time.

Ok, but how do you know the name of a specific book that you may want? Some years ago I thought I had located at least one website that listed all the known books by title and author, but I cannot locate a good site now. If anyone knows a good site please post it in the comments or email me. I would appreciate it. In the next two posts I will give the list of bygdebøker that I am aware of for Rogaland and Vest-Agder counties. 


Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

If you would like to have new blog posts emailed to you as they are posted, email me a note with your email address and I will add you iralund@cft-win.com



Friday, December 23, 2016

Scandinavian Naming Patterns

The next several posts will trace my maternal ancestry in Norway, so I felt it important to explain some Scandinavian Naming practices. Here are some important things one ought to know about the large amount of Scandinavian names in my database:
  1. NN is the Latin abbreviation for "nomen nescion" or "non nominandus"  meaning "name is not known" which is a standard across Europe for genealogy, newspaper reports and court affairs. This is more language neutral and globally acceptable than using the English terms "Miss", "son" or "daughter" in place of an unknown given name. It is also more preferable than leaving the given name blank, as it clearly indicates the name is missing.  This unknown name happens most often when a source indicates that a man married the daughter of another man, without giving the daughter’s name. Thus she might be recorded as "NN Torgilsdatter".
  2. "d.e." is the Norwegian abbreviation for "den eldre" - the older or elder. "d.y" is the Norwegian abbreviation for "den ynge" - the younger. These terms can apply to father/son (mother/daughter) of the same name, brothers (sisters) with the same name, or even a little more distantly removed such as uncle/nephew, etc.
  3. For the most part Norwegians (and all Scandinavians) use two types of surnames: patronymics and farm names. Surnames, as we consider them in America (or Western Europe) today are relatively new, used in Norway only since around 1900 - officially since 1923. Prior to that, each person had a given name only and often was called the daughter or son of their father (and sometimes but rarely their mother). A name such as Johan Svendsen, meant this was "Johan the son of Svend". Same thing for daughters: Josephine Knudsdatter means Josephine, the daughter of Knud.  Some genealogies have removed the "gender" from all these ending surnames and changed a lot of "datter" endings to "sen". Thus, Josephine Knudsdatter is sometimes called Josephine Knudsen. For the older parts of the databases I have kept the proper endings: datter and sen as appropriate. (Generally speaking, Swedish endings are spelled "son" and "dotter", as opposed to the Norwegian spellings of "sen" and "datter". Icelandic spells them as "son" and "dottir". For the most part that is true in my database, but not always strictly adhered to.)
  4. A second type of surname very often used in conjunction with the patronymic surname was the farm name. Thus a person called Arnbjørn Einarson Kydland was from the farm called Kydland. In reality this was not really part of the name, but a location indicator to help identify people who often had the same or similar names. This last name/place could change throughout a person's life, if they moved to a different farm. In my database I have included every farm name where I have ever discovered the person's name associated with as a part of the person's name. Thus you may come across a long name such as: Lars Sveinungson Vølstad Rage Haukamork. This would indicate that Lars, the son of Sveinung at various times in his life was associated with three different farms: Vølstad, Rage, and Haukamork.
  5. For quite some time the Norwegians had a traditional naming practice where each of their children would be named after certain ancestors in a certain set order, such as first maternal grandfather, then paternal grandfather, a deceased previous spouse, etc.  Also if a child died, the next child born to the couple of the same gender would get the deceased child's name. Thus, if a married couple both had fathers with the same name it could easily be that 2 or 3 or even more children all had the same given name, especially if there were others in the ancestral line with that name. This can be confusing when you see a family where there are several children all with the same name and you wonder whether these have been duplicated. Perhaps they are but perhaps they are not. Typically if two children with the same give name grew to adulthood, one was identified as d.e. (den elder – the older) and d.y. (den ynger – the younger).
  6. Surnames are somewhat of a recent invention in Western Europe. China has the oldest history of surnames - going back thousands of years. But in Europe they are really only a few hundred years or so old. Thus many medieval people were given nicknames which are often in quotes in the database: such as Harald "Fair Hair" and Alfred "the Great". Almost all countries and languages also had their equivalent "son" and "daughter" nomenclature to help identify people. We are used to the "datter/dotter" or "sen/son" of the Scandinavians, mentioned above, but other languages had their equivalents and you will see them all through my database.  Some examples are: ap (son) and verch (daughter) in Welsh, Mac in Scotland, Mc in Ireland, plous in Greek, and ovich or ak in Russia or Slavic countries.


Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

If you would like to have new blog posts emailed to you as they are posted, email me a note with your email address and I will add you iralund@cft-win.com




Wednesday, December 21, 2016

English Nobility - Part 5

Continuing the format of the prior posts, here is the final post on English nobility that traces directly down to myself:
  • Stanley: "Sir John I Stanley, KG (c. 1350–1414) was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and titular King of Mann, the first of that name. The Stanley family later became the Earls of Derby and remained prominent in English history into modern times." [Wikipedia: John I Stanley of the Isle of Man] This prominent family's paternal ancestry links back to the Anglo-Saxons, who were in England before the Normans came. This John I is called John II in my database due to his grandfather also being called John. Due to relationships I have found with others that often converge on the Stanley family, I suspect that there is quite a large number of people alive today who are descended from this family.
  • d'Ewes: Grace d'Ewes' brother Simonds (1602-1650) was "best known for his work as an antiquarian, and particularly for his transcriptions of important historical documents, originals of which do not survive today, and the Journals of all the Parliaments during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth." [Wikipedia: Simonds d'Ewes]  Her grandfather Gerard d'Ewes was a printer, whose father Adrian had come from the Netherlands.
  • Hastings: This is a rather common surname in England and Ireland, but unlikely that all Hastings are descended from the same paternal ancestor, since the Irish Hastings likely derived the surname from the Anglicization of the Irish Gaelic sept of Ó hOistín, while the English Hastings may be derived from both a place name and an earlier personal name Hasting or Hastain. The Hastings in this chart are derived from Hastings, England where the famous Battle of Hastings was fought and gave the surname to Robert FitzRalph Hastings, the son of Ralph (Raoul) de Venoix, le Mareschal from France. Edmund Hastings' (1264-1314) father Henry became the first Baron Hastings, but since the crown did not recognize him, his son and Edmund's brother John de Hastings became the 1st recognized Baron Hastings.
  • Bokenham: The ancestors of the Buckingham/Bokenham family go back to Ralph de Bukenham (abt 1090-) who is surnamed from the village of Bukenham in Norfolk. The family eventually owned a lot of land in Snetterton about 40 miles away, so some were known as "de Snetterton" or "de Bokenham" or even "de Snetterton de Bokenham". At least three generations of this family became Sheriffs of Suffolk; Edmund, Henry and Wiseman. Within the first few generations, Elizabeth Buckingham's ancestors moved closer to London at Clerkenwell, Middlesex, where she met and married Richard Baker, 2nd great-grandfather of my Baker ancestry.
  • Baker: My 2nd great-grandfather, Benjamin Walter Baker (1830-1888) was born in Bromley Saint Leonards, Middlesex, England and migrated to the USA in 1851 when he was just about 20 years old. From
    family stories we know that the Baker family living in the suburbs of London were well off.  Benjamin's older brother, Henry was a professional engineer and machinist. "To amuse the children he, at one time, fashioned a tiny steam locomotive that could and did run around under a water glass ... Jean Rio [his wife] was a fine singer. She sang at important concerts in London and throughout the British Isles." Benjamin himself became an engineer after his immigration to America. Based on much of this it does not surprise me that several generations earlier the Bakers were marrying into wealthy families like the Bokenhams, who themselves had ancestry going way back into more nobility and eventually royalty.

Here are links to some of the key people in my online genealogy database:



Here are some links to help you learn more:



Here are some useful books to read pertaining to the subjects in this blog:

    

Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

If you would like to have new blog posts emailed to you as they are posted, email me a note with your email address and I will add you iralund@cft-win.com



Tuesday, December 20, 2016

English Nobility - Part 4

One must remember two things when reading these past few posts as well as the final Part 5 of English Nobility. First, the lists of nobility that I am discussing are really only a few of those in my direct line. There are many more in my online database. And secondly, these nobility ancestors are really only a fraction of all of my paternal ancestry. You must remember again what I had written much earlier about the large number of ancestors we all have, since the doubling of every new generation can easily give us more than 1 million direct ancestors within 700-800 years which is the time frame of some of the middle to early individuals on these charts. By about 1400 CE my calculations show that I know less than 1/10 of a percent of all the ancestors that my father would really have had. This means that the other 99%+ during this time frame are likely common people whose genealogy is unknown.

So let us continue discussing some more of the English nobility in my direct ancestral line:
  • Hoo: Thomas Hoo (d.1455) was the last Baron of Hoo and Hastings. His ancestors were sometimes Barons and the family had quite a bit of property in Bedfordshire. For 4 centuries they owned the estate called Luton Hoo which is now a  Hotel, Golf and Spa.
  • Boleyn: This family is most famous due to Anne Boleyn, one of Henry VIII's many wives and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Her father, Thomas was a brother to another Anne Boleyn married to John Shelton who is my direct ancestor as can be seen in the chart. They were a prominent English family in the gentry and aristocracy. William Boleyn II (1451-1505) was Sheriff of Kent, Norfolk and Suffolk. His father Geoffrey Boleyn (1406-1462) was Lord Mayor of London. His grandfather, Geoffrey Boleyn (1380-1440) was Yeoman of Salle in Norfolk.
  • Clifford: The Cliffords were direct descendants of Richard the Fearless Duke of Normandy (955-1054), the great-grandfather of William the Conqueror. Their ancestor Pons FitzPons, also a great-grandson of Richard the Fearless came to England with the Normans. In England the Cliffords were Marcher Lords in Herefordshire on the Welsh Border. They constructed a number of Castles at Bronllys, Llandovery and Clifford. The Barony of Clifford passed to the brother of the earliest Lewis de Clifford (1355-1404) shown in the chart, so my ancestral line was no longer at Clifford Castle.
  • Kempe: This family must have been upper class as several are referred to as Esquires. Robert Kempe IV (1516-1594) was an English politician and Member of Parliament.
  • Shelton: John Shelton (1477-1539) who married Anne Boleyn was High Sheriff of Norfolk, as was his son, John as well as his father Ralph. The ancestry of the Sheltons only goes back a few generations more than shown on the chart.

Here are links to some of the key people in my online genealogy database:

Here are some links to help you learn more:

Here are some useful books to read pertaining to the subjects in this blog:

    

Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

If you would like to have new blog posts emailed to you as they are posted, email me a note with your email address and I will add you iralund@cft-win.com

Sunday, December 18, 2016

English Nobility - Part 3

Chart #44 is an attempt to connect  myself to two Welsh rulers of the Middle Ages (from Chart #39a). In all cases here, it is daughters of these Welsh rulers that marry into English nobility with descent to my nearer ancestry in the 1500-1600's:
  • Boteler: This family originated in Normandy with Thurstone (Richard) le Haldup (1013-1074), whose ancestry also goes back to Norway, thus would also have gone to Normandy with Rollo the Viking.  For some time the family lived in Warwickshire when first in England. One descendant, William le Boteler, became the 1st Baron Boteler of Werington, which is further north of Birmingham. These are ancestors of Sir Thomas le Boteler MP (Member of Parliament) shown in the chart.
  • Norbury: Thomas le Boteler's son-in-law, John de Norbury, was also a member of parliament and Lord High Treasurer of England (1399–1401), Keeper of the Privy Wardrobe (1399–1405) and a member of Henry IV's Privy Council. His two sons were both knights.
  • Bray: Sir Edmund Bray, 1st Baron Braye was also High Sheriff of Bedfordshire in 1514 and of Sussex and Surrey in 1522. His son, John, became the 2nd Baron Braye, but I am descended from his daughter Frances, who married Thomas Lyfield.
  • Colleville (Colville, Colvin): The Colleville's trace their ancestory to Gilbert de Coleville from Normandy, who also came with William the Conqueror as a Knight in the initial landing in 1066. "One of the family's most notable titles is the Barony de Colville of Castle Bytham where from the 12th Century the family controlled a Barony with lands in excess of 25,000 acres (10,000 ha)." [wikipedia: House of Colville (Colvin)]
  • Basset: This family was from Quilly Basset, Normandy. Their ancestor Thurston Basset also came with the Norman Conquerors. Even today descendants of this family still carry some of the old noble titles.
  • Trenowith: Ralph Trenowith (1373-1427) was MP for Liskeard (UK Parliament constituency). His grandfather, also named Ralph (1318-1392) was MP for Truro (UK Parliament constituency).
  • Shelley: There were three baronets created for the Shelley family later than the ones I am descended from, but they were all descended from the same Sir John Shelley, Jr. of Michaelgrove (1448-1526) which I am descended from shown as the grandfather of Katherine Shelley who married Henry Browne.
  • Mortimer: The ancestor of the Mortimer family was Ralph (Ranulph) de Mortimer (1055-1104) who was Seigneur de Mortremer-sur-Eaulne in Normandy and became the Lord of Wigmore Castle on the border of Wales and England - the Welsh March. Roger de Mortimer (1221-1282) became the first Baron Mortimer and his grandson Roger became the first Earl of March. Edmund "the Good" Mortimer's grandson Edmund was the 5th and last Earl of March. This was a powerful family from the time of the first Ralph from Normandy down through the time of this last Earl.
  • Despenser: The Despencer family shown here are descended from Arnulph (Arnoul) de Montgomery that we had discussed in the prior blog. Many of the men were Barons. Hugh IV (1260-1326) was the royal chamberlain and famous for being the favorite of Edward II of England, and consequently being executed for it. His father, Hugh III (1261-) was Earl of Winchester, and for a time the chief adviser to King Edward II of England.
  • FitzAlan: The ancestor of the FitzAlan's were the same as the Stewarts mentioned in the previous blog, from Normandy with Alan FitzFlaald, Seneschal of Dol as the father Walter FitzAlan the first High Steward of Scotland and William FitzAlan, the father of the Lords of Oswestry and Clun and later the Barons and Earls of Arundel.  On the death of Thomas FitzAlan, Betchworth Castle passed from the FitzAlans to the Brownes, due to his daughter Eleanor marrying Sit Thomas Browne. The Browne family occupied it until 1690.
  • FitzWilliam: There are so many in this family many with the same personal names that there can be confusion in genealogies. But at least Mabel's father and grandfather seem to be correct as I show them, although further back there are discrepancies in various genealogies on the web. Sir William FitzWilliam (1506–1559), was an Irish courtier, Member of Parliament, Chief Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Edward VI of England; Deputy Chancellor of Ireland; Lieutenant of Windsor Castle; Keeper of Windsor Great Park and Lord Lieutenant of Berkshire. His father Thomas FitzWilliam (1465-1517) was Sheriff of Dublin City.
  • Browne: The Brownes shown here are descended from Sir Thomas Browne (1402-1460) Treasurer of the Household to Henry VI, Member of Parliament and Chancellor of the Exchequer. He was beheaded for treason in 1460. They are descended from the deBruin (leBrun) who came from France during the 12th century. Their ancestors during the 10th and 11th centuries were Seigneurs de Lusignan. Sir Matthew Brown (1561-1603), father of Jane who married Robert Kempe, was slain in a duel with his kinsman, Sir John Townshend, on 1 August 1603.

Here are links to some of the key people in my online genealogy database:

Here are some links to help you learn more:

Here are some useful books to read pertaining to the subjects in this blog:

    

Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

If you would like to have new blog posts emailed to you as they are posted, email me a note with your email address and I will add you iralund@cft-win.com

Saturday, December 17, 2016

English Nobility - Part 2

Chart #43 contains a number of English nobility in my direct ancestral line. Below are a few comments on these families:

  • Stewart/Stuart: The first High Stewart of Scotland was Walter FitzAlan (1105-1177), with ancestry from Brittany, France. Walter Stewart's son, Robert (not in my ancestry) became the King of Scotland and the 7th High Stewart. From the late 14th century through the union with England in 1707, the Stewarts were Kings and Queens of Scotland. Almost everyone with the Stewart/ Stuart/ Steward name today are surely descended from this family.
  • Graham: The Grahams are a Scottish clan with uncertain origins. Some think they are of Anglo-Normans, although there is a legend that the original ancestor named Greme broke part of the Roman Antonine Wall and drove the Romans out of Scotland. The paternal ancestry of John Graham (1270-), Lord of Dalkeith and Abercorn in Midlothian, Scotland only goes back about 8 more generations to the 11th century.
  • Montgomery: Roger II Montgomerie (1022-1094) was one of William the Conqueror's principle councilors, commanded during the Battle of Hastings and became the first Earl of Shrewsbury. His ancestry goes back to an earlier Roger called Roger Magnus (abt 855-) who was said to have accompanied Rollo the Viking to Normandy. But Roger Magnus' ancestry is unknown, but was likely from Scandinavia if he came with Rollo. One line of descent which is in my ancestry but not shown in the chart continues with the Earldom of Shrewsbury, through his son, Roger III. The line in this chart show descent through Arnulf (1066-1119),  who was a leading magnate during the Norman conquest of Wales in the later part of the 11th century and built a castle at Pembroke. Two generations later, Robert was in Scotland as the first Laird of Eaglesham.
  • Waldegrave: The ancestor of Thomas Waldegrave (on Chart #43), Sir Richard Waldegrave served as a Knight of the Shire in 1339 in Lincolnshire. His son, Richard (1335-1401) was a member of Parliament and Speaker of the House of Commons. Then his son, Richard (1380-1434) was Lord of Bures and Silvesters. Their descendents were earls of Waldegrave even down to the present with James Waldegrave, 13th Earl Waldegrave, born 1940.
  • Sir Arthur Harris (1530-1597) was the High Sheriff of Essex. "Harris" is a typical Welsh name. However, his surname ancestry actually derives from his Norman ancestor Herice de Beaugency (1022-). Herice's grandson was called Ivo de Heris, Viscount of Nottingham, the first where the Harris/Heris/Heriez surname is used. So it seems that this Harris family actually came over with William the Conqueror from France and did not originate in Wales.


Here are links to some of the key people in my online genealogy database:



Here are some links to help you learn more:

Here are some useful books to read pertaining to the subjects in this blog:

    

Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

If you would like to have new blog posts emailed to you as they are posted, email me a note with your email address and I will add you iralund@cft-win.com



Thursday, December 15, 2016

English Nobility - Part 1

I am now moving closer to my time and away from the Royalty and historical figures of the Middle Ages. Now I will begin to focus more on the nobility - Lords, Earls and important families over the last several hundred years. In the next few blogs this will be focused on England only as these people will be direct ancestors of my paternal grandmother, Margaret Lucy Baker, whose paternal ancestry came from England. Her grandfather, Benjamin Walter Baker was born just outside London. Of all my paternal ancestors this Baker line is the only one that I can trace back beyond about 1600, with some of my ancestral lines actually impossible to trace earlier than the 1800's.

Chart #42 contains a number of various English Nobility that I am descended from which I will comment briefly on:
  • Percy: The most powerful noble family in northern England during the Middle Ages. William de Percy (d. 1096) came from Normandy shortly after the Battle of Hastings. The descent from William de Percy to Henry I  de Percy is not shown on Chart #42. Interestingly it was de Percy's mother, Agnes, who was the great-granddaughter of William who inherited the Percy surname. Since Agnes' father, William II de Percy, 3rd Baron of Topcliffe, had no male heirs, Agnes' descendants became the Baron's of Topcliffe, then later Baron Percys of Alnwick and Earls of Northumberland. The male descendants of this family are still Dukes and Earls to this day.
  • Neville: Along with the House of Percy, this was another powerful family in Northern England. After the Normans conquered England many of the local nobility were displaced from their estates by Normans. However, the Nevilles are an exception, as they are of Scottish-Norse descent. The male lineage goes back to Crinan de Mormaer, of Atholl, who is shown in Chart #37, the father of Duncan I "the Gracious", King of Scotland.
  • Braose: Another famous family descended from Adam de Brus is the Broas family beginning with William I de Braose, First Lord of Bramber (c. 1049-1093) who was previously lord of Briouze, Normandy. The connection to Adam de Brus seems a bit questionable to me as perhaps the connection was made due to the similarity of the Bruce/Bruis name with Broas/Briouze name, which I doubt are really the same. The Bruce Castle is 180 km (110 miles) away from the town of Briouze and I cannot locate any evidence of a connection between them. Nevertheless, "Members of this family played a significant part in the Norman conquest of England and subsequent power struggles in England, Wales and Ireland in the 11th to 14th centuries." [wikipedia: House of Braose]
  • Mowbray: As seen on the chart, Aline Braose married John, the second Baron of Mowbray. His paternal ancestry is in my online genealogy database going back to Normandy and thence back to the Vikings who settled in Normandy with Rollo in 911.
  • Howard: This family gets it's surname from their ancestor Hereward the Wake, who was a brother to Eadgyth, Queen of England who we have discussed a few times in prior posts (see Chart #30). Hereward was a local Saxon resistance leader who fought against the Norman invaders. Though not shown in my chart, all the ancestry from Robert Howard of Tendring to Hereward the Wake are in my online genealogy database.
  • Guildford: The Guildford family were upper class, with more than one serving as Sheriff of Kent. George Guildford's father was Sir Richard Guildford, KG, which refers to Knight or Order of the Garter, which is the highest order of chivalry and the third most prestigious honor in England.
  • Walsingham: Edmund Walsingham (1480-1550) was a Member of Parliament (MP), and Lieutenant of the Tower of London during the reign of King Henry VIII. His son, Sir Thomas was a Justice of the Peace for Kent (abt 1559), High Sheriff of Kent (1563–64) and a Member of Parliament (MP) for Maidstone in 1571.


Here are links to some of the key people in my online genealogy database:

Here are some links to help you learn more:


Here are some useful books to read pertaining to the subjects in this blog:



Cumberland Family Software: www.cft-win.com

If you would like to have new blog posts emailed to you as they are posted, email me a note with your email address and I will add you iralund@cft-win.com